Shopping Cart Request Brochure Contact Us

Updated on: 09/07/14

Railing & Balustrade Types, Usages & Legal Requirements


Glass Balustrade
  |  Juliet Balcony  |  Curved Patio Doors  |  Balcony Systems Articles Main Page

In this article we will deal with the regulations and requirements for railings and balustrades. This breaks downs into a few subjects:

  • What materials are allowed to be used?
  • What height are balustrades required to made to?
  • What loadings are balustrades meant to withstand and how are these applied, tested or calculated?
  • What categories are there for different railing or balustrade usages or areas?

 

The information below is taken from two British standards; BS6180:2011 "Barriers in and about buildings - Code of practice" which relates to the code of practice for balustrades in buildings and BS6399-1:1996 "Loadings for buildings - Part1: Code of practice for dead and imposed loads" which specifies the information on loadings. In this article we try and simplify into layman's terms some of the information and principles contained in these standards. Most of the building regulation documents relating to balustrades, railings and balconies is based on these standards.


Deflection Balustrade under load

Deflection Balustrade under load

 

What materials are allowed?

There is no limitation per se which material can be used as the balustrade structure, obviously the material chosen must be:

  1. Rigid and strong, be able to resist and not bend, buckle or break under pressure.
  2. Durable and suitable to the area they are to be applied to. Plastics are not usually used for balustrade structures, but rather metallic elements such as steel, stainless steel or aluminium. Wood is and has been a popular material but maintenance becomes an element to take into consideration.

Sometimes the balustrade structure includes, and is, the barrier, such as in the case of bars or perforated metal panels, and in many cases in the modern build use is made of glass as infill panels and in the case of structural glass, actually is the barrier.

When using glass you are obliged to use what is designated as safety glass, this can be either (a) toughened (aka tempered) or (b) Laminated

 

(a) Toughened glass
Toughened or tempering is a process that the glass is subjected to consisting of heating the glass to around 700 degrees Celsius and quenching (cooling quickly). The quenching process, which takes about 1 minute, creates a strong layer on both sides of the glass while locking tension insides the core of the glass, making it approximately four times stronger to impact than regular float glass.

Why is this called “safety glass” you may ask. Well in answer to that we can explain that toughened glass, if broken, will not break into large pieces with big shards but rather it will "break safely" and shatter into hundreds or thousands of small, and therefore, not so dangerous little bits.)

 

(b) Laminated glass
Laminated glass is made from at least two glass panels with an interlayer. The interlayer is usually made of plastic or is resin based. Laminated glasses can be made from two float panels, two toughened panels or a combination thereof. When tested for conformity laminated safety glass is allowed to break under impact but must not allow the impacting body to penetrate the panel.

In the United Kingdom it is toughened glass that is predominantly used. Laminated and toughened glass use is growing in particularly on high rise buildings. Whereas in Europe single pane toughened glass is not allowed. Only laminated glass is allowed. 

Thickness and type of glass to be used is varied and greatly depends on the area it must protect, impact class required (there are several classes for impact of safety glass) and size of each single pane used, more on this in the section relating to loadings.

 

What heights are required for balustrades?

For internal railings or balustrades that are inside a single family dwelling the height required is 0.9m from "datum" (“datum” is defined as the height or point you can stand on) to the top of the handrail. For external balcony or terrace areas the required height is 1.1m from datum to the top of handrail.

Handrail height for stairs, internal or external and all usages is 0.9m from "datum"

 

Impact testing on the glass and balustrade

Impact testing on the glass and balustrade

 

What loadings and forces are railings/balustrades meant to withstand and how are these applied, tested or calculated?

Load types:

The loads are expressed in kN/m (kilo Newton metre) in simple terms this is a quantity very similar to 100Kg (220lb) of pressure per metre length. If for example it is stated that there is 1.0kN/m it will be approximately the equivalent of one person weighing 100kg putting their full weight on one metre length.

There are three basic loads that are required to be met; (a) Horizontal loading on the handrail, (b) vertical loading on the handrail and (c) loading on the infill. The horizontal loading on the handrail is called a "uniformly distributed line load" or UDL (basically meaning that the load needs to be calculated in a fashion that allows for even distribution of the pressure along the complete length of the element, as opposed to the sum of the load applied to one point). The vertical load on the handrail is composed of both a UDL vertical load and a point load. The load on the infill, be it glass, metal or other, is tested and calculated in two separate ways; a distributed load and a "point load". This means the infill of the railing, balustrade or barrier must be able to withstand an evenly distributed pressure as well as a concentrated pressure on a small point.

The loads are tested or calculated whereby the maximum deflection under pressure must not exceed 25mm.

 

Areas of building usage and the loads that apply

You can divide regulations into these basic areas:

A) Domestic & residential (single family home) internal stairs/landings etc in which case the handrail pressure must be able to take 0.36kN/m. For external balconies and in light office areas non susceptible to overcrowding this is doubled to 0.74 kN/m. This can be compared to having one averagely weighing person 75kg applying the full force of their body on every metre of the balcony.

 

B) Public areas such as retail areas, bars and restaurants- the handrail pressure must be able to take 1.5 kN/m. This is doubled to a dramatic 3.0 kN/m in areas such as malls, discotheques and areas susceptible to overcrowding.

 

In relation to the loads that apply in these areas on the glass or infill panels we will show here the severe of the two loads which is the concentrated point load:

  1. Domestic & residential (single family home) internal stairs/landings etc Point load: 0.25kN/m. For external balconies and in light office areas non susceptible to overcrowding 0.5kN/m.
  2. Public areas: On all public areas such as retail areas, malls, discotheques, areas susceptible to overcrowding, bars and restaurants the point load must be able to take 1.5kN/m.

When dealing with glass barrier one more element must be taken into account and that is impact resistance of the glass. A minimum of 10mm glass should be employed in balcony areas that are wider than 1.5m.

 

Uniformly distributed load on the handrail

 

Uniformly distributed load on the handrail 



Glass balconies in london

 

Glass Balconies in London

 

 

Stainless Steel Balustrades

 

Residential Loading Requirements on Balconies 

Glass Balustrade

Juliet Balcony

Curved Patio Doors

Online Shop

Request Brochure

Contact Us

Seperator Seperator

NEWS

  • We are at Grand Designs Birmingham again!

    Glass Balustrades, Curved Doors, composite decking and Juliet Balconies are all on show at the Grand Designs Exhibition in Birmingham. Click to register for complimentary tickets

  • Part time assistant for accounts department

    Balcony Systems Solutions Ltd. We are recruiting for our Accounts Department. Part Time Accounts Assistant 8-10 Hours per week, flexible and could be worked in school hours.

  • Technical office positions

    Technical office positions, CAD technician, technical office, drawing office, draftsman. We are looking for intelligent technical persons for our technical department and drawings office.

  • Sales and marketing position

    We are recruiting for our office based sales team. Here at Balcony Systems Solutions we have a great sales team and a wonderful company atmosphere.

  • Glass and Wood Balcony

    New glass balustrade and composite decking add ‘wow factor’ to thr roof terrace. A smart new glass balcony and composite decking, supplied by Balcony Systems, add the perfect finishing touch to a basement extension.

  • Balcony Views Magazine - Read it Online

    Balcony Views Magazine is now available to view and read online. An exciting magazine with ideas, innovations, practical information and design concepts to architects, contractors, developers and self-builders.

  • Glass balustrade protects Isle of Man garden

    Glass balustrades supplied by Balcony Systems shelters the terrace from strong south-westerly winds, marks the garden boundary and allows clear views.

  • Balcony Views Magazine 2014 Launch

    Balcony Views Magazine is an exciting magazine which includes new ideas, innovations, practical information and design concepts for architects, contractors, developers and self-builders.

  • Photo Competition 2014

    Balcony Systems Photo Competition 2014 is now open! Send us pictures of your glass balustrades, Juliet balconies and curved glass doors and win fantastic prizes!

  • Grand Designs London 2014 Special Offer

    Balcony Systems’s 8th year Grand Designs Live creates EXTRA SPECIAL HOT offer. We are freezing our 2013 prices until the end of the Grand Designs Live!

Blog Seperator

REVIEWS

  • Uiseag at Portvoller - Isle of Lewis - Hebridean Islands
    rating starrating starrating starrating starrating star

    The property (Uiseag is the Gallic for Skylark - many nest on the croft)is on the Western Isles - they can be windy - yes up to 80mph, so an...

  • juliette balcony
    rating starrating starrating starrating starrating star

    Really pleased with the service I received and the product us great and just what we wanted for our renovation project, perfect look we were...

  • My opinion of your excellent website
    rating starrating starrating starrating starrating star

    Balcony 2 System used for balcony and deck balustrades on rear of detached house overlooking Brighton, Sussex. Railing colours - Bronze and ...

  • Strong and aesthetic glass balcony
    rating starrating starrating starrating starrating star

    This product combines the best balance of maximum visibility through glass and a pleasing, strong supporting structure. The anodised royal ...

  • Got there in the end
    rating starrating starrating starrating starrating star

    The look of these products are top class, I did have an issue with colour finishes as a wanted a stainless steel look, so ordered the royal ...

  • Patio and Balcony
    rating starrating starrating starrating starrating star

    The balustrade components and glass all arrived on time and our builders had no difficulty with the installation. The products fitted perfec...

  • Review - The Old Barn, Cheshire
    rating starrating starrating starrating starrating star

    Very pleased with the balcony product, our joiner was impressed with the quality of the materials used and easy to read instructions. Ver...

  • order ref 37618
    rating starrating starrating starrating starrating star

    Did what it said on the tin, looked stunning, is low maintenance,guaranteed to last in seaside environment. Good value for money. Delive...

  • Balcony for new build at Bramley House
    rating starrating starrating starrating starrating star

    We have just completed our new oak frame house and have a super balcony area which looks fantastic with the Balcony system solutions product...

  • Excellent Juliette balcony
    rating starrating starrating starrating starrating star

    I had this balcony installed approximately two years ago and am very pleased with it. I live right beside the seaside and ANYTHING made of m...

Seperator